- Ovarian Cancer Stage by Stage
- Facing the First Stage of the Ovarian Cancer
- The Second Phase of the Ovarian Cancer
- Being ill with the Third Phase Ovarian Cancer
- The Fourth Stage of the Ovarian Cancer
- The Ovarian Cancer Grading System
Ovarian Cancer Stage by Stage
If cancer is pinpointed, it’s highly important for your doctor to fathom its stage so that to arrive at conclusion about your treatment and prescribe you the most efficient drugs. The stage, which is usually figured out by undergoing various tests and a series of scans, allows your doctor to catch sight of the tumor and make out whether cancer has invaded any other organs of your body.
Usually, the stage is defined in accordance with 1-4 ranging system. The term that refers to it is FIGO that means the International Federation of Gynecological Oncologists.
Facing the First Stage of the Ovarian Cancer
On the very first stage, the cancer has only had impact on the ovaries. We should also underline that there are 3 groups.
They are as follows:
- Stage 1a or one of your ovaries being completely invaded.
- Stage 1b means that already both of the ovaries are subjects to the detrimental influence of the ovarian cancer.
- Stage 1c implies that apart from metastases in one or both ovaries, the outside of an ovary is also involved. Besides, while carrying out a surgical operation or even before it, cancer cells may be detected in the fluid taken from your abdomen. A similar fluid is found if there is a case of the ovary ruptures and doctors have to take immediate measures.
The Second Phase of the Ovarian Cancer
The risks this stage bears mostly refer to the functioning of the ovaries being at stake as well as the area of the pelvis that is from now on also involved. Think out that there may also be cancer cell in the abdomen.
There exist three groups:
- 2a stands for the cancer being advanced to area of the fallopian tubes or the womb.
- Having been diagnosed with 2b ovarian cancer implies that other tissues of the pelvis are now involved. For example, the bladder or rectum.
- If on the basis of your tests and scans your doctor draws a conclusion that you’re dealing with 2c cancer, take under advisement that there are cancer cells that experts have encountered when thorughly studying the fluid from your abdomen. The cancer has now reached other tissues in the pelvis.
Being ill with the Third Phase Ovarian Cancer
Here the key point is that now the cancer is attacking your abdominal cavity as well. The third stage is also figured out if there are abnormalities in your groin, in the lymph nodes or in the area behind the womb.
There may also be various groups of cancer at this stage:
- 3a doctors take a sample of what tissue is covering your abdomen and state if there are any cancer cells in it by the way it looks under a microscope.
- If it’s about 3b ovarian cancer, tumor spreads on the tissue that covers abdomen are quite obvious. They are 2 cm in length or smaller.
- In case 3c ovarian cancer is detected, the tumor spreads are already longer than 2 cm. Besides, you should add to it cancer in the lymph nodes located in the area of the upper abdomen, the groin or even behind the womb. There is also a possibility that all the abnormalities mentioned may occur at once.
The Fourth Stage of the Ovarian Cancer
On the fourth stage, the cancer is referred to as an advanced case of cancer when other organs located quite far from the ovaries, for example, your lungs or liver are at danger.
There are the following groups here:
- 4a means that the cancer has had such a bad effect on your lings that there is fluid accumulated in their covering. For such case, doctors have a particular term – pleural effusion.
- 4b is when the whole area starting from the inside of the liver or spleen to the lymph nodes in the groin and even outer area of the abdomen are affected. Moreover, other organs, such as your lungs, may also be at risk.
The Ovarian Cancer Grading System
The grading system relies greatly on the way the cells look under microscope. The results are of paramount importance since doctors are then able to make suppositions on how fast the process of cancer development will go.
Below you can find the grades and their description:
- Grade one is for low grade tumors. This grade is very often referred to as “well differentiated”.
- Grade two which is also called “moderately differentiated”.
- Grade three for which doctors commonly use the term “undifferentiated”.
When normal cells develop, they gradually get accustomed to their role in the organism thus functioning in a particular way. This process is called differentiation. The crux of the matter is that abnormal cancer cells may be manifested like absolutely normal. In this case, they are said to be well differentiated which means that such like cancer will evolve quite gradually.
If your doctor has studied the cells and has taken a stand that they look not developed enough and are not like a normal cell, then it’s about high grade tumor. Such a result implies that the cancer is a more aggressive one.