Prostate Cancers

Prostate Cancers


Contents:


There is the most widespread type of cancer of males in the USA. According to the statistics, this disease happens in life of every sixth white man or every fifth African-American man. Moreover, its risk increases with age. It is referred to prostate cancer.

Signs and Symptoms

At the present time, the majority of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed by screening in asymptomatic men.

Symptomatology of prostate cancer is the following:

  • Urination pain or even acute retentions of urine;
  • Backache;
  • Bloody urine.

Meanwhile, the symptoms mentioned above can be caused by some other diseases not related to prostate cancer. And the only clinical examination will not help to tell the difference between benign tumor and prostatic cancer.

Monitoring of patients with degenerative disease can show the following:

  • Extreme emaciation;
  • Brittleness of bones;
  • Lower limbs` lymphostasis or deep venous clottage;
  • Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia;
  • Overdistended bladder due to outlet obstruction.

Diagnosis

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Excessive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Level

  • The zero PSA level ensures the absence of prostate cancer.
  • The likelihood of prostate cancer increases as the PSA level increases, from about 8 % with PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL to about 25 % with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL and over 50 % for levels over 10 ng/mL.

Pathologic DRE (Digital Rectal Exam) Indicants

  • DRE depends on exam, thus, serial examinations are required;
  • The majority of people with prostate cancer have normal DRE indicants and pathologic PSA indices.

Cancer Specimen

  • Cancer specimen makes a diagnosis;
  • There can be false-negative results, therefore, cancer specimen can be often required before prostate cancer is diagnosed.

Screening Study

ACS (American Cancer Society) advises screening study for men in order to reveal prostate cancer on the basis of their health care provider, the main task of which is to comment on the uncertainties, risks and potential benefits of screening study.

Age groups of people, for whom screening study is strongly recommended:

  • 50-year-old men at a mean risk who have at least a 10-year life expectancy;
  • Afro-Americans at the age of 40-45 who have immediate family member diagnosed with prostate cancer before 65 years of age.
  • 40-year-old men with a number of immediate family members who had cancer at an early age.

Some organizations, as for example, USPSTF (US Preventive Services Task Force) recommend screening on the PSA base in any case, which is regarded controversial.

Treatment

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Localized Prostate Cancer

Conventional therapy for localized prostate cancer involves methods below:

  • Radical prostatectomy;
  • Radiotherapy;
  • Active surveillance;
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Metastatical prostate cancer is almost incurable.

In this case, the therapy includes the following:

  • Treatment focused on relief of particular symptoms (eg, palliation of pain);
  • Efforts to slow further progression of disease.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

There is no any special underlying condition for prostate cancer. However, factors, which can cause its onset are various. Below you can find the most widespread ones.

  1. Age.
  2. Genetics.
  3. Dietary regimen.
  4. Pharmacological treatment.
  5. Corpulence.
  6. Sexually transmitted infections (STI).
  7. Agent Orange.
  8. Enzyme PRSS3 linked to aggressive prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Therapy

As soon as prostate cancer was detected, you should decide upon your treatment. Your doctor will help you here. Therefore, you should weigh all pros and contras of every type of therapy, as there are possible risks and collateral damage. There is a number of therapies used in case of prostate cancer.

According to the case, the type of therapy for men with prostate cancer can involve the following:

  • Watch and wait or active surveillance tactics;
  • Surgical attack;
  • Radiological therapy;
  • Cryotherapy;
  • Hormone therapy;
  • Chemical therapy;
  • Opsonotherapy;
  • Bone-directed treatment.

These types of therapy are usually used in combination or one at a time.

What is the Specialist, who Treat Prostate Cancer?

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There are several medical specialists taking part in prostate cancer therapy:

  • Urinologists are medical specialists, who treat diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system;
  • Radiation oncologists: specialists treating cancer with radiation therapy;
  • Medical oncologists: specialists treating cancer with medicines as chemotherapy or hormone therapy;
  • Some other medical specialists, as physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), nurses, nutrition specialists, social workers, and other health professionals.

Choosing Prostate Cancer Therapy

You should weigh all the pluses and minuses of your future prostate cancer therapy before the start of your treatment.

The main points for thinking out are the following:

  • The stage and grade of your cancer;
  • Your age and expected life span;
  • Any other serious health conditions you have;
  • Your feelings (and your doctor’s opinion) about the need to treat the cancer right away;
  • The risk that treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way);
  • Your feelings about the possible side effects from each treatment.

Take your time to find the best option, even if you should make your decision as soon as possible.

Second Opinion for a Correct Decision Making

It is very useful to have a second opinion concerning your state, which is understandable. It makes you more sure in the type of therapy you select. Second opinion is especially required, if there are several suggested types of treatment.

Summing up, prostate cancer is a complex disorder, therefore specialists can deliver various ideas concerning its treatment. Thus, communication with those ones, who are involved in prostate cancer treatment (various specialists) can be very helpful in the choice of the type of therapy for you personally. In case you have no idea, where you can get a second opinion, opt for your doctor`s help.

Decision to Interrupt Your Treatment or to Start Another One

In case there are no measurable results in your treatment, you can interrupt it or look for another type of therapy. Remember: there is a number of ways to improve your life even in your case. There are also some men, who decide not to treat prostate cancer at all for some reason or other. Even if you belong to this group, you can go on some supportive treatment in order to get rid of pain or some other symptoms.

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